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Nazarbajev: Suočavanje s teškim izazovima

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The widely expected re-election in Kazakhstan of Nursultan Nazarbayev did not come as a surprise, merely confirming the continuity of Nazarbayev’s leadership and the endorsement of his status as the ‘father of the nation’. However, this new mandate differs largely from the previous of his long rule – political reforms are promised and widely expected as being a major aim. The idea of a ‘liberal state’ is in the air. Would it be a major achievement and an ultimate conclusion for the career of a politician who assumed his membership as a ‘full member’ of the Politburo of the USSR’s Communist Party in 1990?

Život Nazarbajev (74) je imao mnogo dramatičnih obrata, međutim on je pokazao izuzetan kapacitet za uspinje do najviših pozicija, što je zahtijevalo izvanrednu sposobnost za promjene i prilagodbe. Od svoje komunističke prošlosti kao predsjednik Vrhovnog sovjeta i broj jedan aparatčik iz Kazahstana SSR, on je vodio transformaciju svoje zemlje na liberalne ekonomije modelu, s ciljem sada dovesti svoje ljude i dalje prema ustavnoj reformi kako bi podržali prijenos snage od predsjednika parlamentu Majilis.

This scenario is probable, as Nazarbayev offers his Kazakhstan a new rescue plan, overcoming new challenges and diversifying the economy to enter the world’s most developed countries and break the Soviet heritage of dependency on natural resources. This part of the electoral campaign is crucial for the future of reforms and Kazakhstan, rich in oil, has until now showed an addictive dependency on raw material exports. The diversification of the economy is directly related to the modernization of the country, and aims to be an endeavour to be realized in partnership with the external players of the EU.

Nazarbayev understands the profound need for closer ties with the EU as the major force to realize the modernization that’s taking place both in technology and political reforms – the October 2014 visit to Brussels confirmed his determination to launch the Enhanced Partnership, which was launched on 20 January 2015.

Initiated by the EU, a new level of co-operation aims at closer ties in trade and investment, services and social development, but also assistance in political reform that will ensure the success of all other undertakings. The European Parliament has stated on numerous occasions that the benefits of deeper co-operation is entirely dependent on political reform, to be fulfilled ‘hand in hand’ with economic integration.

According to the electoral programme, these wishes of MEPs coincide with the will of Nazarbayev, who promise constitutional reform, implying the re-distribution of power from president to parliament and the government ‘according to Kazakhstan traditions’.

Oglas

Temeljni Kazahstanski nacionalni element u ovom procesu je sastavni značajka političkog procesa, spremni da se distancira od događaja u Ukrajini ili Arapsko proljeće, gdje je vrtlog strasti donio smrt, tragediju i razaranja koja će zahtijevati puno truda i vremena u liječiti.

Budućnost političke reforme također počiva na tradicionalnim Kazahstana multikulturalnom stil života - do sada, to je bila jedina zemlja u post-sovjetskom prostoru izbjeći strahote nacionalizma i etničkog čišćenja. Kao model multi-kulturalizma sebe, Nazarbajev kao predsjednik govori i Kazahstanski i ruski obraćajući mu biračko tijelo, ističući poštovanje za najveći manjine u zemlji, a to su Rusi (oko 25%).

Iako dostignuća mutli-kulturalizma u Kazahstanu oslabiti prijetnje terorizma i fundamentalizma, vanjski pogibli i dalje prevladava, s rastućim silama islamske države Iraka i Levanta (Isil) i SAD-u povlači svoje trupe iz Afganistana.

Općenito, situacija na Bliskom istoku i središnjoj Aziji i dalje teško, a talibani, Hizb-ut-Tahrir i Islamskog pokreta Uzbekistana svi doprinosi podršku od Kazahstana biračkog tijela za sekularizam i tolerancije.

However, the task of maintaining calm in Kazakhstan’s steppe will remain increasingly difficult and will require the considerable efforts of the political class and civil society, which is in need of invigoration, as promised by President Nazarbayev. The next 100 days of president’s leadership are highly anticipated, and not only in Kazakhstan, as the reform and democratization of the leading country in the region will have an enormous impact on the future development of citizens in Central Asia and beyond.

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